The Art of breast Augmentation

Chris Jordan, is an artist who is best known for his large scale works, often depicting mass consumption and waste. One of his works, from the series “running the numbers”, depicts 32,000 Barbies, equal to the number of elective breast augmentation surgeries performed monthly in the US in 2006.

Chris Jordan Running the Numbers. Source: http://www.chrisjordan.com/gallery/rtn/#barbie-dolls

Another artist, Marc Quinn, is a British artist who often does sculptures that portray the “preoccupation with the mutability of the body and the dualisms that define human life: spiritual and physical, surface and depth, cerebral and sexual.” using materials such as ice and glass, marble or lead. A lot of his work is in abstract or figurative form. Some recent works he has done depict the actress Pamela Anderson and adult entertainer Chelsea Charms. Both have had Breast-augmentation.

Bibliography

Wikipedia Marc Quinn:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marc_Quinn 
Wikipedia Chris Jordan: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chris_Jordan_(artist)
Chris Jordan Running the Numbers: http://www.chrisjordan.com/gallery/rtn/#barbie-dolls 
Marc Quinn: http://www.marcquinn.com/ 
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Statistically Speaking

296,203 breast-augmentations were performed in 2010, all of which were female. 51% more than in 2000.

Breast-augmentation is the most popular Cosmetic Surgical Procedure in 2010. $992,432,214 was spent on breast augmentations in 2010.

Age groups that received  Breast Augmentations in 2010.

Pie Chart of age groups that received Breast Augmentation in 2010

Bibliography

American Society of Plastic Surgeons: http://www.plasticsurgery.org/News-and-Resources/Statistics.html
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Extrodinary Lengths

Some people have taken breast augmentations to extraordinary lengths. Even augmenting their breasts so much that they set a world record! A one Maxi Mounds holds the Guinness World Record for the “World’s Largest Augmented Breasts”. She currently wears a US size 42M bra, she achived the size of her breasts by receiving a Polypropylene String implant. A one 28-year-old Sheyla Hershey of Brazil holds the Brazilian edition of Guinness World Records book title of having the largest augmented breasts in Brazil. She achieved her breasts by receiving more than 8 surgeries and she has more than a gallon of silicone in her. Lolo Ferrari appeared in the French Guinness Book of World Records in 1996 with breasts measuring in at 54J. Chelsea Charms claims to have the biggest breasts, saying that she measures a 153XXX, though no conclusive evidence hase been shown.

Bibliography 

Biggest breasts Wiki.answers.com: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/Who_has_the_biggest_breasts_in_the_world
Biggest breasts Guinness world records: http://www.guinnessworldrecords.com/Search/Details/Largestaugmentedbreasts/61418.htm
Worlds Largest Breasts: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2009/02/04/worlds-biggest-breasts-sh_n_163992.html

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Different types of augmentation

There are many different types of breast-augmentation. But as mentioned before, I have narrowed them down to two main categories: surgical and non-surgical. Lets start off with surgical breast-augmentation shall we?

Surgical breast-augmentation, or more commonly known as breast implants, come in 3 different types; saline implants filled with sterile saline solution, silicone implants filled with viscous silicone gel, and alternative-composition implants, filled with miscellaneous fillers — soy oil, polypropylene string, et cetera — that are no longer manufactured.

Saline implants

These implants filled with saline solution (Or more commonly known as salt water) were first developed in 1964 in France. The goal of this different type of implant was to perform surgical breast-augmentation with smaller incisions. The way that these implants work is that the empty implants are inserted and then filled with the solution afterwards. Because the implants are inserted empty, the resulting surgical scar will be smaller than the scar produced by the incision used for pre-filled silicone gel implants. Although the silicone breast implant has more superior aesthetic properties, the saline implants, if placed correctly, will have results just as good as the silicone gel implant. The down-side of the saline implant is that it has a tendency to cause noticeable rippling and wrinkling.

Silicone gel implants

These implants are usually described in 5 generations, defined by their manufacturing techniques meant to improve its physical and aesthetic realism. The first generation of silicone gel implants, produced in the 1960s, were a tear drop shape filled with a thick, viscous silicone gel. To reduce rotation of the implant up against the chest wall a fastener-patch, of Dacron (Polyethylene terephthalate) was affixed to the back of the implant. The second generation of silicone breast implants, developed in the 1970s, were softer and more life like, the manufacturers redesigned these ones with thinner shells and a thinner silicone-gel filler, but because of these new revisions there was more chance of the implant rupturing and filler leakage. These faulty silicone-gel implants were the subject of the lawsuits against the Dow Corning Corporation. This generation introduced some technological improvements though. The polyurethane foam coating, which reduced incidences of capsular contracture. And the development of the double lumen design, a silicone implant within a saline implant.

A Silicone gel-filled breast implant. Source: http://cdn.wn.com/pd/7a/1a/8a7d1cf6a2733ce10dbb76d6e2ce_grande.jpg

The third and forth generations, during the mid-1980s, introduced the elastomer-coated device shells, increased-cohesion gel filler. The elastomer-coated device shells and increased-cohesion (thicker) gel filler reduced the chance of filler leakage. Also introduced were anatomic (natural) and shaped (round, contoured) design varieties, available with either a smooth or a textured surface to control the movement of the emplaced implant device. The fifth generation, in the 1990s, introduced implants with a semi-solid gel that mostly eliminates filler leakage, this generation has reported low rates of capsular contracture and of device-shell rupture.

Polypropylene breast implants

Also known as string breast implants, are a type of implant, developed by Dr. Gerald W. Johnson. This device has been banned in the US and Europe. The polypropylene, which is yarn-like, causes irritation to the implant pocket which causes the production of serum which fills the implant pocket on a continual basis. This causes the breast to continuously expand after surgery. Problems can arise if breasts grow at different rates. This can be corrected by removal of serum with a syringe or introduction of sterile saline. String implants were only available for a very short time before being removed from the market by the FDA around 2001.

There aren’t many mainstream non-surgical breast augmentation procedures. There is the Thailand Breast Slap, which, outside of Thailand, isn’t used very much. There is the BRAVA breast enhancement and shaping system. There is also techniques using injections as well as through oral medications.

Bibliography 

Brava non-surgical breast-augmentation: http://www.mybrava.com.au/
Non-surgical breast-augmentation: http://www.drmiroshnik.com.au/breast-non-surgical/
Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Breast_implant
Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Breast_augmentation
Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/String_breast_implant
 
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History of Breast Augmentation

The first breast augmentation took place in 1890, the surgeon Robert Gersuny, from Austria, experimented with paraffin injections to augment the breast, this ended with disastrous results, it led to infections and lumps forming in the breasts. The first published account of breast augmentation was in 1895, a Doctor Vincenz Czerny from Austria, effectively performed an augmentation on a woman’s breasts by moving a benign lipoma from a woman’s back to fix asymmetry problems after a tumour had been removed.

In the 1920s they tried using fat transplants in breast augmentations. The way this worked was that they transferred fat from the belly and buttock areas to the breasts. Though this did not work very well as the body would quickly reabsorb the fat and this would leave the breasts lumpy and lopsided. In 1945 Morton I. Berson, and in 1950 Jacques Maliniac both performed flap-based breast augmentation by rotating the patient’s chest wall tissue into the breast to increase the size. Between then and 1950s they used a range of other substances as breast implant fillers — ivory, glass balls, ground rubber, ox cartilage, wool, gutta-percha (a type of fruit), polyethylene chips (a type of plastic), Ivalon (polyvinyl alcohol–formaldehyde polymer sponge), a polyethylene sac with Ivalon, polyether foam sponge (Etheron), polyethylene tape (Polystan) strips wound into a ball, polyester (polyurethane foam sponge) Silastic rubber, and teflon-silicone prostheses. Through out the 1960s plastic surgeons tried silicone injections directly into the breast, this caused breast hardening and chronic inflammation.

In 1961 the first silicone breast implant was developed by Thomas Cronin and Frank Gerow with the Dow Corning Corporation. This is the same type of implant that is commonly used today. In 1988 these type of implants were investigated by the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) and in 1992 the FDA placed silicone implants in moratorium because there wasn’t enough evidence to prove that they were safe and effective. In 1995 the Dow Corning Corporation went bankruptcy protection when it faced 19,000 breast implant sickness lawsuits. In 1995 Soybean oil implants were introduced. These were considered to be the “natural approach” to breast augmentation. This type of breast implant was never approved in the U.S. And for good reason. In 1999 they were found to have a filler that could go toxic in the body when it breaks down. A famous case of complications with this type of implant is that of Tara Reid. In 1998 the FDA approved the use of silicone implants only for breast reconstruction patients and in 1999 the Institute of Medicine published the Safety of Silicone Breast Implants (1999) study that reported that the saline and silicone breast implants caused no systematic health problems, that their use posed no new health or safety risks; and that local complications are “the primary safety issue with silicone breast implants”.

In 2000 the FDA approved the use of saline implants for women over 18 and women requiring breast reconstruction. In 2006 the FDA lifted its restrictions on the use of Silicone breast implants. Yet, the approval was conditional upon accepting FDA monitoring.

That pretty much brings you up to speed on the long history of breast augmentation.

Bibliography 

History:
http://www.beyondniptuck.com/history/
Wikipedia:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Breast_implant
Vincenz Czerny:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vincenz_Czerny
Robert Gersuny:
http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Gersuny
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16/05/11

What is Breast Augmentation?

Breasts are a part of a woman, in case you hadn’t noticed, they are located on the front upper part of a women’s torso, and usually come in pairs!

Their size and shape vary from women to women and sometimes the women is not completely happy with their breast size, so often women undergo some sort of Breast Augmentation.

Breast Augmentation, also known as breast implant, breast enlargement, mammoplasty enlargement, augmentation mammoplasty or as the common slang term; boob job.

There are several reasons why someone would undergo breast augmentation. Not just for aesthetic purposes, but for breast reconstruction, for correcting chest wall congenital deformities or for a male to female gender transition.

There are many different types of breast augmentation, but I have narrowed it down to two different categories: surgical and non-surgical. Surgical Breast Augmentation is where one would undergo some sort of surgery to augment the breasts, breast reconstruction is done using the surgical method. Non-surgical is done using some sort of external device or through oral medications to augment the breasts.

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09/05/11

Oh&s

I’m getting information from these sources. 

http://www.safety.uwa.edu.au/policies/computer_workstation_ergonomics

http://www.swinburne.edu.au/corporate/hr/ohs/policies.ht

i have also started on the design of the Handbook itself.

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